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Please review journal Ethics before submission and following policies:

Every manuscript submitted to this journal should be formatted and have a proper list of references to cited articles according to the paper template. Readers should be informed about who has financially supported the research and on the role of the funders in the research.

The editorial board will not tolerate any plagiarism and fraudulent data. By submitting the submission, the corresponding authors accept the policy of the journal regarding the rights for publishing, copyrights, and other issues in case of acceptance. The authors are also obliged to confirm that their article has not been published or submitted for publishing in another publication.

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

The paper must include a list of references. All authors are obliged to respect copyright laws and publication’s ethical principles against plagiarism. The expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property and is protected by copyright laws, just like the original inventions. Almost all forms of expression fall under the copyright protection laws as long as they are recorded in some way (such as a book or a computer file).


The peer review process is at the heart of the success of scientific publishing. As part of our commitment to the protection and enhancement of the peer review process, our journals have an obligation to assist the scientific community in all aspects of publishing ethics, especially in cases of (suspected) duplicate submission or plagiarism.
Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source is usually enough to prevent plagiarism. In the case of copyrighted material, it is necessary to obtain the permission to use this source.

Ethics topics to consider when publishing

  • Authorship of the paper: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study.
  • Originality and plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
  • Data access and retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data.
  • Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication: An author should not, in general, publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Elsevier does not view the following uses of a work as a prior publication: publication in the form of an abstract; publication as an academic thesis; publication as an electronic preprint. Information on prior publication is included within each Elsevier journal’s Guide for Authors. Note: Cell Press, The Lancet, and some society-owned titles have different policies on prior publication. Information on these is available on the journal homepage.
  • Acknowledgement of sources: Proper acknowledgment.
  • Disclosure and conflicts of interest: All submissions must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest.
  • Fundamental errors in published works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
  • Reporting standards: Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance.
  • Hazards and human or animal subjects: Statements of compliance are required if the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, or if it involves the use of animal or human subjects.
  • Use of patient images or case details: Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper.